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Architecture of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is blessed with the flow of the waters of the holiest of India’s rivers-The Ganges. The region also witnessed the flourishing of the ancient Indo-Aryan civilization, from which rose a stream of powerful kingdoms and empires - Koshala, Kashi, Malla, Vatsa, Panchala and Chedi Mahajanpadas. In Medieval Periods it saw emergence of Sharqi Dynasty and Mughal influence in modern periods Europeans - whose influences coursed deeply through the outpourings of their cultural developments.

Uttar Pradesh’s architectural heritage showcases this fabulous wealth of structures inspired by the confluence of Buddhist, Hindu, Indo-Islamic and Indo-European cultures, which offer the visitor an invaluable education in the evolution of its architecture. Architecture of Uttar Pradesh could be categorised according to periods

Ancient Architecture :
The ancient architectural wonders in Uttar Pradesh include Buddhist stupas and viharas, ancient monasteries, townships, forts, palaces , and temples. Some prominent are Dhamekh Stupa of Sarnath , Pillar Inscription of Kaushambi by Samudragupta, many ancient temples in Kanpur and Varanasi. These are almost simple but strong and fine buildings or pillars that do not have elaborate decoration but finely jewels of their time.Medieval Architecture Medieval period saw Muslim rulers from Sultanate to Mughal. Mosques, mausoleums, memorials and other community structures are marvels of this period. It saw influence of Persian and Indo-Islamic Architectural Styles. Christian Pope have written “India has proposed and Persia disposed, but what India gave she received back in a new form that enabled her to pass to fresh architectural triumphs.”

Main features of style of this time are inherent decoration, geometrical sculptural styles and exquisite inlay work, mehrab or arch, dome, minar, and design of Kalash in Hindu temples with elaborate ornamental styles and scriptures written on walls of buildings. Some fine examples are Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Jami Masjid and Attala Masjid of Jaunpur. These magnificent structures have been built in and around seats of learning, pilgrimage and power like Agra, Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Jhansi, Mathura, Kanpur, Meerut and Mirzapur besides other places.

Mughal architecture is a seamless fusion of Indo-Islamic architecture, and Central Asian culture. The splendour of UP’s Islamic buildings has received world acclaim. Three of its monuments are UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage sites. This includes that poem of perfection —The Taj Mahal, the Agra Fort and Emperor Akbar’s dream capital Fatehpur Sikri. Modern Period saw mausoleum of many British Rulers like Mausoleum of Lord Cornwallis in Ghazipur, Railway buldings in Varanasi and Kanpur, Churches and many places associated with freedom struggle that are restored after freedom by Government of Uttar Pradesh.

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Uttar Pradesh At a Glance
  • Population:3,676,841
  • Area :1,535 sq.kms
  • Geo Location:North
  • Average Climate:5°C - 20°C
  • Best time to visit:October - March
  • STD Code:0542

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